Her haughty mother humiliated her by calling her “Granny.” Her alcoholic father was the beloved parent, but hardly someone you could count on in a pinch. Maybe it was, since the marriage became more of a political partnership than romantic attachment. Later, Mercer and other glamorous, witty women continued to attract his attention and claim his time, and in 1945 Mercer, by then the widow of Winthrop Rutherfurd, was with Franklin when he died at Warm Springs, Georgia. She was an unstoppable force in his successful campaign for governor of New York in 1928. Following family tradition, she devoted time to community service, including teaching in a settlement house on Manhattan’s Lower East Side. Her father, Elliott Roosevelt (1860-1894) was the younger brother of Theodore Roosevelt, and her mother, Anna Hall (1863-1892), was from a wealthy New York family.

Eleanor Roosevelt, in full Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, (born October 11, 1884, New York, New York, U.S.—died November 7, 1962, New York City, New York), American first lady (1933–45), the wife of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 32nd president of the United States, and a United Nations diplomat and humanitarian. Eleanor Roosevelt was born on October 11, 1884. Mindful of his political career and fearing the loss of his mother’s financial support, Franklin refused Eleanor’s offer of a divorce and agreed to stop seeing Mercer. The previous November, Roosevelt had been elected to an unprecedented fourth term as president. Eleanor offered Franklin a divorce; however, he chose to stay in the marriage for various reasons, including the fact that divorce carried a social stigma and would have hurt his political career. She had wanted a simple funeral, but, as Jackie Kennedy noted, it turned into an event “as complicated as an inauguration,” with the president, vice president, two ex-presidents, three first ladies (past, present and future) and the chief justice of the United States among the mourners. Roosevelt, a ...read more, Elizabeth “Bess” Truman (1885-1982) was an American first lady (1945-53) and the wife of Harry S. Truman, the 33rd president of the United States. Eleanor encouraged her husband’s return to politics, and in 1928 he was elected governor of New York. As a member of the Legislative Affairs Committee of the League of Women Voters, she began studying the Congressional Record and learned to evaluate voting records and debates. After Franklin won a seat in the New York Senate in 1911, the family moved to Albany, where Eleanor was initiated into the job of political wife. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Eleanor-Roosevelt, National First Ladies' Library - Biography of Eleanor Roosevelt, The White House - Biography of Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, National Women's History Museum - Biography of Eleanor Roosevelt, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Eleanor Roosevelt, Eleanor Roosevelt - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Eleanor Roosevelt - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). She is buried at Hyde Park, her husband’s family home on the Hudson River and the site of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library. After Pearl Harbor, Eleanor insisted on going to the Pacific war zone to support the troops. There was speculation she would run for public office; instead, she chose to remain highly active as a private citizen.

At this time Eleanor’s interest in politics increased, partly as a result of her decision to help in her husband’s political career after he was stricken with polio in 1921 and partly as a result of her desire to work for important causes. Eleanor offered Franklin a divorce; however, he chose to stay in the marriage for various reasons, including the fact that divorce carried a social stigma and would have hurt his political career. Experts have suggested that Roosevelt’s infidelity prompted Eleanor to become increasingly independent and further devote herself to political and social causes. In 1918 Eleanor discovered that Franklin had been having an affair with her social secretary, Lucy Mercer. Omissions? By the 1920s, Roosevelt, who raised five children, was involved in Democratic Party politics and numerous social reform organizations. She also pushed for the continuation of New Deal programs during the war, against the wishes of some of her husband’s advisors. At age 15 Eleanor enrolled at Allenswood, a girls’ boarding school outside London, where she came under the influence of the French headmistress, Marie Souvestre. She was also a political leader in her own right. In September 1948, Eleanor Roosevelt delivered her most famous speech, “The Struggle for Human Rights,” which urged U.N. members to vote to pass the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a now defining document on the global stage. Early on in their marriage, in 1918, Eleanor discovered her husband was having an affair with her social secretary, Lucy Mercer (1891-1948). Corrections? By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In the last decade of her life she continued to play an active part in the Democratic Party, working for the election of Democratic presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson in 1952 and 1956. For the most part she found these occasions tedious. Her continued support of the civil rights movement and an anti-lynching bill earned her the ire of the Ku Klux Klan, who put a $25,000 bounty on her head in the 1960s. Her speech read, in part, “The basic problem confronting the world today… is the preservation of human freedom for the individual and consequently for the society of which he is a part.” The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was formally adopted on December 10, 1948.
Eleanor’s own romantic life gets thorough treatment, given that much or all of it seemed to involve crushes rather than consummation. It was not at all what Americans expected of a first lady but as time went on, Michaelis writes, “fewer minded that the wife of the president was driving alone by night through villages and four-corners hamlets and stopping for gas on the outskirts of town.”. Eleanor was not with Franklin when he died of a cerebral hemorrhage at the presidential retreat in Warm Springs, Ga., in 1945.

Roosevelt’s father was an alcoholic and her parents’ marriage was troubled. After President Roosevelt’s death, Eleanor was a delegate to the United Nations and continued to serve as an advocate for a wide range of human rights issues.
There was Earl Miller, a state trooper who tutored her in self-defense.

Fleet Adm. Bull Halsey, who had lobbied vigorously against her trip, recanted, declaring, “She alone accomplished more good than any other person or any group of persons who passed through my area.”. Ford realized the power of her position as first lady early on, when she was diagnosed with breast cancer shortly after her husband took office. In 1938, she attended a memorable meeting of human rights groups in Birmingham, where the not-yet-notorious Sheriff Bull Connor banned integrated audiences. Franklin and Eleanor had six children, five of whom survived to adulthood: Anna (1906-1975), James (1907-1991), Elliott (1910-1990), Franklin Jr. (1914-1988) and John (1916-1981). But her upbringing was so grim that it’s a wonder she emerged functional, let alone one of our nation’s great humanitarians. Eleanor Roosevelt was the most important first lady in American history. Childhood sweehearts, the two were separated for a number of years before resuming their romance and marrying, two years after the ...read more, Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204) was one of the most powerful and influential figures of the Middle Ages. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! In 1948, it happened. Roosevelt remained involved in Democratic Party activities during her post-White House years, campaigning for candidates around the country. Carter spent the early years of her marriage moving often with her husband during his naval career, before returning to Georgia to run his family’s business. She had not initially favoured the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), saying it would take from women the valuable protective legislation that they had fought to win and still needed, but she gradually embraced it. After her mother died of diphtheria in 1892 (her father died less than two years later), Roosevelt and her two younger brothers, Elliott Roosevelt Jr. (1889-1893) and Gracie Hall Roosevelt (1891-1941), lived with their grandmother, Mary Ludlow Hall (1843-1919), in Manhattan and Tivoli, New York. At more than 700 pages it’s hardly a quick read, but it’s a great resource for people who don’t know a whole lot about her. Six years later, Roosevelt was elected to the White House. The Roosevelts entered the White House in the midst of the Great Depression (which began in 1929 and lasted approximately a decade), and the president and Congress soon implemented a series of economic recovery initiatives known as the New Deal. These unusual excursions were the butt of some criticism and “Eleanor jokes” by her opponents, but many people responded warmly to her compassionate interest in their welfare. She died on Nov. 7, 1962, exactly 30 years after the day Franklin was first elected president. In many ways, it was her library too, since she had carved out such an important record as first lady, one against which all her successors would be judged. She was an early champion of civil rights for African Americans as well as an advocate for American workers, the poor, young people and women during the Great Depression.

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