Hernán Cortés Spanish Conquistador Born Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro 1485 Medellín, Castile Died Dec. 2, 1547 (at age 61–62) Castilleja de la Cuesta, Castile Nationality Castilian Source of Fame Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire Hernán Cortés (1485-1547), also known as Hernando Cortés was a Spanish Conquistador, born in Medellin, which is in Early lionizing of the conquistadors did not encourage deep examination of Cortés.

As a child Cortés was described as a pale, sickly child by his biographer, chaplain, and friend Francisco López de Gómara. He knew a lot about the Maya, who owned this section of land.

The fifth, on the Honduras expedition, is contained in volume IV of the Documentos para la Historia de España. The scarcity of these sources has led to a sharp division in the description of Cortés's personality and a tendency to describe him as either a vicious and ruthless person or a noble and honorable cavalier. This page was last modified on 5 May 2017, at 12:50. Probably the best source is his letters to the king which he wrote during the campaign in Mexico, but they are written with the specific purpose of putting his efforts in a favourable light and so must be read critically. Elliot, introductory essay to Anthony Pagdens translation of Cortés' letters "Hernan Cortés" letters from Mexico" 2001 (1971, 1986) Yale University NotaBene books, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. On returning to Mexico, Cortés found the country in a state of anarchy. It had only recently been discovered by Europeans and was rumoured to contain great wealth.

Cortés' personal account of the conquest of Mexico is narrated in his five letters addressed to Charles V. These five letters, the cartas de relación, are Cortés' only surviving writings. Western diseases such as smallpox also caused huge fatalities. Figlio di Martín de Monroy che antepose il cognome materno Cortés per ragioni successorie, abbatté l'Impero azteco e lo sottomise al Regno di Spagna. By this time Charles had returned and Cortés forthrightly responded to his enemy's charges. On November 8, 1519, they were peacefully received by Moctezuma II.

Crow, John A. [30] Cortés and the Franciscans had a particularly strong alliance in Mexico, with Franciscans seeing him as "the new Moses" for conquering Mexico and opening it to Christian evangelization. "[38][39], The emperor finally permitted Cortés to join him and his fleet commanded by Andrea Doria at the great expedition against Algiers in the Barbary Coast in 1541, which was then part of the Ottoman Empire and was used as a base by Hayreddin Barbarossa, a famous Turkish corsair and Admiral-in-Chief of the Ottoman Fleet. Costui entrò stabilmente nella cerchia di amicizie di Hernán Cortés. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés (c. 1485-1547) is best known for conquering the Aztecs and claiming Mexico on behalf of Spain.

Later, he went back to Europe with a lot of treasure. Cortes was born Medellín, Extremadura province, in the Kingdom of Castile in Spain.

The influence of Garay was effectively stopped by this appeal to the King who sent out a decree forbidding Garay to interfere in the politics of New Spain, causing him to give up without a fight. This new position of power also made him the new source of leadership, which opposing forces in the colony could then turn to. In 1794, his bones were moved to the "Hospital de Jesus" (founded by Cortés), where a statue by Tolsá and a mausoleum were made.

There was an investigation into her death, interviewing a variety of household residents and others. Cortés sailed for Spain in 1528 to appeal to King Charles. La flessibilità spagnola così come la rigidità azteca si manifestarono in battaglia: gli aztechi seguivano un rituale tradizionale in guerra (gli abiti che indossavano per l'occasione, il luogo della battaglia, l'urlo prima di attaccare), facilitando con prevedibilità il lavoro dei conquistadores. There are a number of reprints and translations of Cortés's writings into various languages.[48][49]. Cortés was twice appointed municipal magistrate (alcalde) of Santiago. Much of the treasure looted by Cortés was lost (as well as his artillery) during this panicked escape from Tenochtitlán. Modern reconsideration has done little to enlarge understanding regarding him.

[9] He reserved many encomiendas for himself and for his retinue, which they considered just rewards for their accomplishment in conquering central Mexico. [9] Finally, with the capture of Cuauhtémoc, the tlatoani (ruler) of Tenochtitlán, on August 13, 1521, the Aztec Empire was captured, and Cortés was able to claim it for Spain, thus renaming the city Mexico City. In 1529 he had been accorded the noble designation of don, but more importantly was given the noble title of Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca and married the Spanish noblewoman Doña Juana de Zúñiga. [9] There he encountered Geronimo de Aguilar, a Spanish Franciscan priest who had survived a shipwreck followed by a period in captivity with the Maya, before escaping. Gli spagnoli invece combattevano all'europea, fendendo la spada su chiunque si trovasse loro innanzi cagionando perciò moltissimi morti. Because of the controversial undertakings of Cortés and the scarcity of reliable sources of information about him, it is difficult to describe his personality or motivations. On one occasion he forced his way through a crowd that surrounded the emperor's carriage, and mounted on the footstep. It was not until November 24, 1946 that they were rediscovered,[41]:467 thanks to the discovery of a secret document by Lucas Alamán. The Aztec Empire had fallen. He overcame Narváez, despite his numerical inferiority, and convinced the rest of Narváez's men to join him. He met a woman, La Malinche, who knew the Maya and Nahuatl languages. Tenochtitlán, located near today’s Mexico City, had more than 140,000 inhabitants at its height, and was the most densely populated city ever to exist in Mesoamerica. The story of North American exploration spans an entire millennium and involves a wide array of European powers and uniquely American characters. Sent by Queen Elizabeth I to South America in 1577, he returned home via the Pacific and ...read more, In search of fame and fortune, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (c. 1480-1521) set out from Spain in 1519 with a fleet of five ships to discover a western sea route to the Spice Islands. Find out more about how the BBC is covering the. The first carta de relación is available online at the University of Wisconsin. After he overthrew the Aztec Empire, Cortés was awarded the title of Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca, while the more prestigious title of Viceroy was given to a high-ranking nobleman, Antonio de Mendoza. He used deadly force to conquer Mexico, fighting Tlaxacan and Cholula warriors before turning his attention on the ultimate prize: taking over the Aztec Empire. Don Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (; Spanish: [e?'na?

Script error: The function "getCommonsLink" does not exist. See his signature in the information box. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish explorers and conquistadors who began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Hernán Cortés (1485 - 2 December 1547) was an explorer and Conquistador from Spain. The emperor gave them gold, and Cortes later told King Charles V that the Aztecs might have thought he was one of their gods: Quetzalcoatl, a feathered serpent with fair skin and a beard. [10], In March 1519, Cortés formally claimed the land for the Spanish crown. [4] This was probably a fair description of a 16-year-old boy who had returned home only to find himself frustrated by life in his small provincial town. [11]:199–200, By the time he arrived in Tenochtitlan the Spaniards had a large army. He also used a native woman, Doña Marina, as an interpreter. In April 1520, Velázquez sent an expedition to capture Cortés. Before he died he had the Pope remove the "natural" status of four of his children (legitimizing them in the eyes of the church), including Martin, the son he had with Doña Marina (also known as La Malinche), said to be his favourite. The document granting the coat of arms summarizes Cortés's accomplishments in the conquest of Mexico.

He ignored the orders and, in an act of open mutiny, went anyway in February 1519. In 1511, Cortés accompanied Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, an aide of the Governor of Hispaniola, in his expedition to conquer Cuba. Had it declared him a criminal, a crisis would have been precipitated by the accused and his party. Early life. For a short time, he served as alcalde (magistrate) of the second Spanish town founded on the island. Catalina lacked the noble title of doña, so at this point his alliance with her no longer raised his status. That August, Cortes went to Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire. [23] The documentation of the investigation published in the nineteenth century in Mexico and archival documents uncovered in the twentieth century.

First, he made public a copy of the bust of Cortés made by Manuel Tolsá in the Hospital de Jesús Nazareno with an official ceremony, but soon a nationalist group tried to destroy it, so it had to be taken out of the public. The history of the conquistadores is rife with accounts of rivalry, jockeying for positions, mutiny, and betrayal.[6]. De Figueroa raided graveyards and extorted contributions, meeting his end when the ship carrying these treasures sank. The Governor of Cuba, Diego Velázquez, was so impressed with Cortés that he secured a high political position for him in the colony. In 1541, Cortés returned to Spain an embittered man and retired to an estate near Seville where he died on 2 December 1547.

Hernán Cortés (1484-1547) Spanish conquistador – Hernán Cortés was born in Medellin (Municipality in the province of Badajoz, Spain) on November 30th, 1484 and died in Castilleja de la Cuesta (municipality of Spain) on December 2nd, 1547 at the age of 63. The Oaxaca Valley was one of the wealthiest regions of New Spain, and Cortés had 23,000 vassals in 23 named encomiendas in perpetuity.[9][36]. [citation needed]. However, one of the first twelve Franciscans, Fray Toribio de Benavente Motolinia does not mention it in his history. This was another setback for Cortés who mentioned this in his fourth letter to the King in which he describes himself as the victim of a conspiracy by his archenemies Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, Diego Columbus and Bishop Fonseca as well as Francisco Garay. His forces defeated the Aztecs in Battle of Otumba on July 7, 1520, and he regained control of Tenochtitlan by August 13, 1521. At this point in his life, Cortés was described by Gómara as restless, haughty and mischievous. A decade later, he was serving as governor of the eastern province of Hispaniola when he decided to explore a nearby island, which became ...read more, Sir Francis Drake participated in some of the earliest English slaving voyages to Africa and earned a reputation for his privateering, or piracy, against Spanish ships and possessions.

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